Types of Derivative | Students Explore

Before study types of derivative, students must know the basic of derivative.

What is Derivative

A function’s varied rate of change with respect to an independent variable is referred to as a derivative. When there is a variable quantity and the rate of change is irregular, the derivative is most frequently utilized. The derivative is used to assess how sensitive a dependent variable is to an independent variable (independent variable).

In this article, we’ll go into more detail on what derivatives are, how they work mathematically, limits, and derivatives in general.


Types of Derivative

At present types of derivative based on a wide range of transactions and have a lot more applications. Even types of derivative based on weather information, such how much rain fell or how many days had sunshine, exist.

Different types of derivative come in a wide variety of forms that can be applied to risk management, speculation, and position leverage. With products that may accommodate almost every requirement or risk tolerance, the derivatives market is one that is still expanding.

Derivative items fall into two categories:

  1. Lock
  2. Option

1. Lock Products:

Lock products obligate the parties to the terms of the contract from the beginning. It is further classified into three types:

  • Future
  • Forward
  • Swap


2. Option products

Options products like stock options give the holder the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell the underlying asset or security at a specific price on or before the option’s expiration date. The most common derivative types are futures, forwards, swaps, and options.


What is Future Derivative

An agreement between two parties for the purchase and delivery of an item at a certain price at a later time is known as a futures contract, or simply futures. Standardized contracts known as futures,  traded on an exchange. A futures contract is used by traders to manage risk or make predictions about the value of an underlying asset. The parties are required to carry out an agreement to purchase or sell the underlying asset.


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What is Forward Derivative

Although forward contracts, often known as forwards, and futures, do not trade on exchanges. There is no over-the-counter trading for these contracts. The buyer and seller have the option to alter the terms, size, and settlement procedure when creating a forward contract. Forward contracts have higher counterparty risk for both parties because they are OTC items.

A type of credit risk, counterparty risks involve the possibility that the parties may be unable to fulfil their contractual obligations. The other party may be left with no options and risk losing the value of its position if one party becomes bankrupt.

Once a forward contract is established, the parties can offset their positions with additional counterparties, thus increasing the risk of counterparty concerns as more traders become involved in the same contract.

What is Swap

Another popular class of derivative, swaps are frequently utilized to convert one sort of cash flow into another. An interest rate swap, for instance, could be used by a trader to change from a variable interest rate loan to a fixed interest rate loan or the other way around.

What is Option Derivative

In that it is an agreement between two parties to buy or sell an asset at a fixed future date for a specific price, an options contract is comparable to a futures contract. Options and futures differ primarily in that with an option, the buyer is not required to carry out their commitment to buy or sell. It is merely an opportunity, not a commitment like futures. Options, like futures, can be used to speculate or hedge against changes in the price of the underlying asset.

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