Five Phases of Recruitment Process in HRM
What is Recruitment Process
The recruitment process is the most important function of HRM department. Recruitment is a process that aims to identify and attract people who are available in the job market, unemployed or looking for new opportunities, seeking to build a database of qualified candidates to perform a given job.
Job analysis is being done in Recruitment to discover the skills and ability in candidates to perform the job. Once the skills and abilities required in candidates are clear they start searching for people with such specialties. The HR Managers clarifies the potential candidate about their job profile and the benefits (rewards) they can gain from the organization. The aspirants desired in the job are further screened, interviewed by HR Managers and finally selected for job that fit best. This process includes five phases that are interrelated.
Five Phases of Recruitment Process
- Recruitment Planning
- Strategy development
- Evaluation and control
Phase 1. Recruitment Process Planning
The first phase in the recruitment process is planning. In this phase vacant positions are analyzed and described. It includes job specifications and its nature, experience, qualifications and skills required for the job, etc.
Recruitment plan must be structured in order to appeal potential candidates from a pool of aspirants. The potential aspirants should be qualified, experienced with a skills to take the responsibilities required to attain the objectives of the organization.
Job Vacancy Identification
Recruitment process begins with receiving the demand for recruitments from different department of the firms to the HR Department, which include−
- Number of posts to be filled
- Number of positions
- Duties and responsibilities to be performed
- Qualification and experience required
When a vacancy is identified, it the sourcing managers’ responsibility to establish whether the position is required or not, permanent or temporary, full-time or part-time, etc. These parameters should be evaluated before commencing recruitment.
Proper vacancy identifying, in planning leads to hiring of the right person for the team and the organization.
The following steps are important in analyzing a job −
- Recording and collecting job information
- Accuracy in checking the job information
- Generating job description based on the information
- Determining the skills, knowledge and skills, which are required for the job
The immediate products of job analysis are job descriptions and job specifications.
Job description is an important document, which is descriptive in nature and contains the final statement of the job analysis. This description is very important for a successful recruitment process.
Job description provides information about the scope of job roles, responsibilities and the positioning of the job in the organization. And this data gives the employer and the organization a clear idea of what an employee must do to meet the requirement of his job responsibilities.
Job description is generated for fulfilling the following processes:-
- Classification and ranking of jobs
- Placing and orientation of new resources
- Promotions and transfers
- Describing the career path
- Future development of work standards
A job description provides information on the following elements −
- Job Title / Job Identification / Organization Position
- Job Location
- Summary of Job
- Job Duties
- Machines, Materials and Equipment
- Process of Supervision
- Working Conditions
- Health Hazards
Job specification focuses on the specifications of the candidate, whom the HR team is going to hire.
A job specification document provides information on the following elements −
- Training and development
- Skills requirements
- Work responsibilities
- Emotional characteristics
- Planning of career
Analyzing, assessing, and determining the worth of a job in compare to the other jobs in an organization is a comparative process of Job evaluation.
The chief objectives of job evaluation is to analyze and determine which job commands how much pay. There are several methods such as:
- Job grading
- Job classifications
- Job ranking
Phase 2. Recruitment Strategy Development
Recruitment strategy Development is the second phase in the recruitment process, whereby a strategy is set for recruiting the resources. After completing the preparation of job descriptions and job specifications in the first phase of planning, the next step is to elect which strategy to select for recruiting the potential aspirants for the firm.
HR team considers the following points in Recruitment Strategy Development
- Make or buy employees
- Types of recruitment
- Geographical area
- Recruitment sources
It is a lengthy process, but a right strategy is necessary to entice the right aspirant. recruitment strategy is comprised of following steps:-
- Setting up a board team
- Analyzing HR strategy
- Gathering of available data
- Scrutinizing the collected data
- Setting the recruitment strategy
Phase 3. Searching
After the recruitment strategy is done, the searching of candidates will be started. This process consists of two steps −
- Source activation– When the line manager verifies and permits the existence of the vacancy, the search for candidates starts.
- Selling– In this, the organization selects the media through which the communication of vacancies reaches the prospective candidates.
Searching includes attracting the job seekers to the vacancies. The sources are broadly divided into two categories: Internal Sources and External Sources.
Internal Sources of Recruitment Process
Internal sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees within the organization through −
- Internal Advertisements (Job Posting)
- Former Employees
- Employee Referrals
External Sources of Recruitment Process
External sources of recruitment refer to hiring employees outside the organization through −
- Employment Exchanges
- Direct Recruitment
- Employment Agencies
- Campus Recruitment
- Word of Mouth
Phase 4. Screening in Recruitment Process
Screening initialized after the candidates sourcing has been completed. Screening is the process of filtering the applications of the candidates for further selection process.
Screening is an essential part of recruitment process that helps in eliminating unqualified candidates, which were received through sourcing. The screening process of recruitment comprises of three steps as follows:−
Reviewing of Cover Letters and Resumes
In this, the resumes of the aspirants are reviewed and checked for the aspirant’s education, work experience, and background which match the requirement of the job
To make sure the better screening of the potential aspirants, HR Managers must remember the following key points in their mind:-
- Durability with each organization
- Long breaks in employment
- Deficiency of career progression
Video and Telephonic Interview
Second step of screening candidates is to conduct the video and telephonic interviews. when, the resumes are screened, the candidates are communicated through phone or video by the recruiting manager. This screening process has two results:−
- It aid in confirming the candidates, whether they are active and available.
- It also support in giving a quick insight about the candidate’s capability to response of interview questions, attitude, and communication skills.
Identification the Top Candidates
Identification of the top candidates is the final step of screening the candidates. It hs has the following three results:-
- Shortlisting 4 to 8 resumes for review by the recruitment managers
- Providing insights and approvals to the recruitment manager
- Support the recruitment managers to take a decision in recruiting the right candidate
Phase 5. Evaluation and Control
Evaluation and control is the last phase of recruitment process. In this, the validity and effectiveness of the process are evaluated. Recruitment is a costly process, therefore, it is essential to evaluate performance of recruitment process.
The costs incurred in the process of recruitment is to be evaluated and controlled effectively. These include the following −
- Salaries to the Recruitment Managers
- Cost of Advertisement and other costs incurred in recruitment methods, i.e., agency fees.
- Expenses of administration and Recruitment overheads
- Outstanding costs, whereas the vacancies remain unfilled
- Time spent by the Management and the Professionals in preparing job description, job specifications, and conducting interviews.
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